Fairtrade: The Fairtrade logo can be seen on a vast number of goods, and coffee is one of the most well-known Fairtrade products. Fairtrade farmers are members of cooperatives which negotiate with the market, guaranteeing the farmers a minimum price for their coffee beans. While this stable income helps farmers directly, there are a range of wider benefits associated with the Fairtrade system, such as the reduction in exploitative child labour and the implementation of strategies to combat issues relating to the environment and climate change.
Filter Coffee: Using a filter is a popular mode of brewing coffee: hot water is poured over ground coffee, which then passes through a filter, often made of paper. In recent years, there has been a movement away from automated drip-brewing methods, and simpler pieces of equipment, such as the V60 and the AeroPress, enable coffee enthusiast to have more control over their coffee experience. Moreover, these devices are highly portable, allowing coffee drinkers the ability to have a great cup of coffee away from home.
Flat White: Originating in either Australia or New Zealand during the nineteen-eighties, the flat white is a relatively new espresso-based beverage served across the globe. Contrary to popular opinion, however, a flat white is not merely a small latte, and there are key differences between it and its milky cousin. Served in a smaller cup, the drink is generally made using a double shot of espresso as its base, topped up with steamed milk. This results in a drink that has a lot less milk than a latte and a less aerated froth than a cappuccino, allowing the coffee to completely combine with the milk.
Foam: By blasting steam through cold milk, baristas create the frothed milk which is a fundamental component of many coffee shop favourites such as the cappuccino, flat white, and latte. All these beverages are comprised of different ratios of steamed milk to foam, and this can vary in different parts of the world. It is also possible to foam skimmed milk and soya milk, though it is harder to create the much sought after microfoam – a froth in which the bubbles are incredibly small and numerous – with these varieties.